With over 4,000 years of history, China has developed a rich and complex musical legacy. The Imperial Music Bureau was established during the Qin Dynasty, somewhere between 221 – 207 BCE. Yet that was already well after a Chinese musical culture had developed. Yayue (“elegant music”), a style of ceremonial and court music, was part of China dating from the Zhou Dynasty (1122 – 256 BCE). Eventually, a second style of classical Chinese music developed, often called “literati.” These two sophisticated musical styles grew in the courtly and imperial communities, as well as monasteries, of historical China, while a diverse collection of folk music was created in the provinces. These classical forms of music were kept to imperial court and elite society, yet the Imperial Music Bureau was active in encouraging the development of and recognizing folk music too.